Vitamin K is an essential nutrient found throughout the body, including the liver, brain, heart, pancreas, and bones. It is found in a variety of foods, including vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage; fish, liver, meat, eggs, and cereals (which contain smaller amounts). Vitamin K is broken down very quickly and is excreted in urine or faeces. Because of this, it rarely reaches toxic levels in the body, even with high intakes.The matrix GLA protein and osteocalcin are two vitamin K-dependent proteins that are present in bones and may be involved in bone mineralization or turnover.
The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the Institute of Medicine established Adequate Intakes (AIs) for all ages based on vitamin K intake in healthy population groups. Table 1 lists the current AIs for vitamin K in micrograms (mcg).Data on the bioavailability of different forms of vitamin K in foods are very limited. The absorption rate of phylloquinone in its free form is approximately 80%, but its absorption rate from food is significantly lower. Eating vegetables at the same time as a little fat improves the absorption of phylloquinone from vegetables, but the amount absorbed is even lower than that of oils.
Limited research suggests that long-chain MKs may have higher absorption rates than phylloquinone from green vegetables.FoodData Central of the Department of Agriculture (USDA) lists the nutrient content of many foods and provides complete lists of foods that contain vitamin K (phylloquinone) ordered by nutrient content and food name, and of foods that contain vitamin K (MK) ordered by nutrient content and food name. Dietary supplements use several forms of vitamin K, including vitamin K1 in the form of phylloquinone or phytonadione (a synthetic form of vitamin K) and vitamin K2 such as MK-4 or MK-7.Little data is available on the relative bioavailability of the various forms of vitamin K supplements.The FNB did not establish ULs for vitamin K because of its low potential for toxicity. In its report, the FNB stated that no adverse effects associated with the consumption of vitamin K in food or supplements have been reported in humans or animals.Vitamin K interacts with some medications. In addition, certain medications can have an adverse effect on vitamin K levels.
People who take these and other medications on a regular basis should discuss their vitamin K status with their healthcare providers.Certain oral anticoagulants, such as warfarin, are known to be vitamin K antagonists. Sudden changes in vitamin K levels can affect the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and cause dangerous complications.Newborn babies who are exclusively breastfed are at greater risk of vitamin K deficiency since breast milk is relatively low in vitamin K compared to formula milk. For people taking medications, knowing which foods contain high sources of vitamin K is the best way to avoid them.Getting enough vitamin K-1 and K-2 in the diet is essential for ideal overall health, and some foods make it easier to achieve the recommended daily values. Three quarters of a cup of carrot juice provides a quick serving of vitamin K, approximately 28 micrograms; pomegranate juice provides 19 micrograms; and some beverages are fortified with vitamin K.
Check the label to make sure.Long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can interfere with vitamin K synthesis by gut bacteria and reduce its absorption. Bleeding and bleeding are therefore the classic signs of vitamin K deficiency, although these effects only occur in severe cases.For more information on how to create a healthy dietary pattern, see the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U. S. UU.
Vitamin K helps produce several proteins that are needed for blood clotting and bone formation. In most cases, vitamin K status is not routinely evaluated except in people who take blood thinners or have bleeding disorders.