Vitamin D deficiency occurs when the level of vitamin D in the body is too low. It can cause thin, brittle, or deformed bones, as well as muscle and bone problems. Certain groups are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, including people with dark skin, adults over 65, obese people, and those taking certain medications. Vitamin D deficiency can also increase the risk of fractures, osteoporosis, and other health issues.
Vitamin D supplementation is the main treatment for deficiency. People with dark skin have a higher risk of not getting enough vitamin D due to their skin's natural protection from the sun's rays. Adults over 65 are also more likely to be deficient in vitamin D because their bodies are less efficient at producing it. Obese people may also have lower levels of vitamin D due to their diet, low sun exposure, or other factors. Certain medications, such as anticonvulsants or glucocorticoids, can increase catabolism and actively destroy vitamin D.Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of COVID-19 and serious effects from the condition.
It has also been associated with an increased risk of inflammatory markers that may jeopardize healing, abdominal fat and weight gain (more pronounced in men), and respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to have significant benefits in adults and children with asthma. Aging is associated with decreased levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor of vitamin D3 in the skin. Vitamin D receptors are present in skeletal muscle, so deficiency can cause proximal muscle weakness; increased risk of falls; global bone discomfort; and lower back pain (in older women).In the United States, milk, some juices, some breads, yoghurts, and cheeses are fortified with vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation is the main treatment for deficiency.
However, it is important to note that interventional regimens have used a one-size-fits-all approach regardless of individual differences in BMI and vitamin D metabolism.